Classes

Series of photos of a demo bout by Tom and Steve

Whether this is your first WMAW or your eleventh, this year's Workshop will expose you to a wide-variety of new ideas, skills, methodologies and research by some of the finest instructors in the Western Martial Arts community.

  1. Close Quarters Combat (5)
  2. Lectures (11)
  3. Medieval Weapon Arts (16)
  4. Renaissance and Early Modern Weapon Arts (16)
  5. Special (9)

About the Class Categories

We are proud to offer a diverse curriculum of classes, lectures, demonstrations and workshops, aimed at a variety of skill levels. For newcomers, those without regular training, or attendees looking to refine their basics, we recommend you pay special attention to the Body Mechanics, Physical Conditioning and Training for WMA classes, which are being offered on Thursday to help prepare you for the rest of the weekend. Concurrent Pedagogical Training and Curriculum Development classes are being offered for those who wish to develop their teaching ability, and are specifically designed to help determine how to work with historical source material, what to teach, how to teach it, and how to translate those drills and exercises into practical application. The remaining General classes are broadly divided by topic: Medieval Weapon Arts (Pre-1500), Renaissance and Early Modern Weapon Arts (Post-1500) and Close Quarters Combat, are aimed at a wide variety of interests and skill levels, and occur in roughly 60 min, 90 min and three hour increments. Finally, as in previous years, there will also be a number of Lectures & Presentations throughout the weekend, designed to help give historical context or to present new research.

As you review the class roster and schedule, remember that most classes must be pre-registered and have attendance limits. Classes that are not Lectures & Presentations have a maximum attendance of 40 students, unless otherwise noted.

Close Quarters Combat

Dagger Fighting from Peter Falkner's Fechtbuch

Instructor(s): Christian Tobler
Class Category: Close Quarters Combat
Day and Time: Thu, 10:30am
Class Length: 90 min
Experience Level: Intermediate
Intensity Level: Low to Moderate
Pre-Requisites: None
Required Equipment: Mask, gloves, a dagger trainer.
Maximum Attendees: 40

The Fechtbuch of Peter Falkner contains a delightfully unique section on dagger combat — one that is both illustrated and accompanied by substantial explicative text. This treatise also contains some novel techniques not found elsewhere in the Liechtenauer corpus

Italian Grappling: Hercules joins earth to heaven (or the art of projecting bodies in the air and take down heads to the ground

Instructor(s): Marco Quarta
Class Category: Close Quarters Combat
Day and Time: Sat, 9:00am
Class Length: 3 hrs
Experience Level: Any
Intensity Level: Low to Moderate
Pre-Requisites: None
Required Equipment: None, but more wrestling knowledge the better!
Maximum Attendees: 40

In the mythology, Hercules during his trials had to wrestle with Antaeus the giant, son of Gaia, mother earth who was giving him his supernatural powers when they were in contact. To beat him, Hercules had to lift him up, reaching the sky where his own father, Zeus, was watching. By doing so, Hercules deprived Antaeus from his source of power, turning him into a simple human. That made easy for Hercules to crash Antaeus in the air, returning him down to earth powerless. Neoplatonics considered this challenge as a symbol between the higher and lower principles, like in the alchemic symbology of the ouroboros where a dragon and a snakes bite each others' tails, according to the idea of a continuous tension of the human soul. For Neoplatonics, human beings tend to the Good (Gods of Heaven). However, they are unable to reach the perfection due to a constant risk to fall into the irrationality moved by instincts (Gods of Earth). The drama of "being" is then challenged constantly by the awareness of running after this unreachable condition. The myth of wrestling become then, for the Hero, a sacred practice to fight himself, elevating his spirit to heaven, standing in the fury and tempest of the fight, in the reflection of himself observed in the grappling hug with the opponent.

In this workshop, we will focus on one specific aspect of Italian grappling, originated from ancient Greek-Roman wrestling: the domain of the inside center of mass to detach the opponent from the ground, nullifying his power by taking him in the air. The gain of that momentum will grant the wrestler the power of reverting the opponent's coordinates, "projecting" his head or face down, back to earth.

We will cross-reference Fiore's work across the different existing manuscripts of the Flos Duellatorum (early 15th century) with other sources of "lotta Italiana" of the Renaissance period. For instance, we will explore commonalities of Fiore's "abracar" in other sources, such as Petri Monti's Exercitiorum atque artis militaris collectanea in tris libros distinct (a Milanese manuscript printed in 1509) or the ca. 1500 lucta tiburtyna.

We will explore techniques and tactics of the "abracar" as they were integrated in the regular academic curricula by Renaissance fencing masters. To this end, original correspondence (dated 1443) between the Bologna city council and the Bolognese Master Filippo (o Lippo) di Bartolomeo Dardi (considered the master of Master Guido Antonio di Luca, who was himself the Master of Achille Marozzo) describes how "abracar" (named in the document as "zuocho dele braze") was part of the regular martial teaching. In particular, "abracar" was included together with stick, sword and dagger fencing classes, documents from "Archiginnasio" historical archive show. Practice still alive today in several regional and familiar Italian fighting styles across the Italian Peninsula.

We will cover both ends of the spectrum, dissecting the "abracar" in the use of "Zoghi di Concordia" (plays of concord) — for the playful practice — and "Zoghi d'Ira" (plays of anger and fury) for the defense and combat. To use the words of Master Antonio Manciolino, we will study the Art (of "abracar") for "il diletto, la scienza e la conservazione della vita": the delight, the science and the conservation of life.

Persian Khanjar (Dagger) And Separ (Shield)

Instructor(s): Manouchehr Moshtagh Khorasani
Class Category: Close Quarters Combat
Day and Time: Sun, 3:15pm
Class Length: 90 min
Experience Level: Any
Intensity Level: Low to Moderate
Pre-Requisites: None
Required Equipment: Mask, gloves, buckler and long dagger (obviously, a khanjar is preferred).
Maximum Attendees: 40

The khanjar is a curved, double-edged blade. The majority of Persian miniatures show the warriors holding a khanjar in a reverse position meaning that the tip of the blade is pointing to the elbow. Many Persian manuscripts describe the xanjar as a weapon for short-distance fighting. This dagger was almost always used in combination with a small shield to fight with. The present seminar describes the following techniques:

1) Main techniques for thrusting with the khanjar
2) Main cuts with the khanjar
3) Binding with the shield and attacking with the khanjar (building a bridge)
4) Shield strikes in combination with dagger strikes
5) Khanjar and separ in wrestling range

Persian War Wrestling

Instructor(s): Manouchehr Moshtagh Khorasani
Class Category: Close Quarters Combat
Day and Time: Fri, 1:00pm
Class Length: 3 hrs
Experience Level: Any
Intensity Level: Moderate to High
Pre-Requisites: None, but more wrestling knowledge the better!
Required Equipment: Comfortable training clothes, water-bottle and towel
Maximum Attendees: 40

Wrestling played and still plays a very important role in Iran. Nowadays there are different types of traditional wrestling in Iran. All Persian epics and legends report that Persian champions were excellent wrestlers who knew how to use wrestling techniques in battles and as well in the duels that sometimes occurred before the battles between the champions of two opposing armies. When a champion threw his opponent on the ground and could control him, he killed him with a dagger or knife strike. Persian historical accounts emphasize the important role of wrestling in the training and preparation of warriors for battle and as well the efficiency of the wrestling techniques in combination with edged weapons in short-range combat. This seminar presents the wrestling techniques as described by the Persian manuscripts, analyzing their usage in combat. 1) Different leg trippings 2) Single and double-leg takedown variations 3) Headlock and bodylock throws (including hip throws) 4) From tripping to single and double leg takedowns 5) From single and double leg takedowns to trippings 6) Wrist and arm control variations.

Wrestling in armour. Insights into the most described throws in German Fight Books (1450-1540)

Instructor(s): Daniel Jaquet
Class Category: Close Quarters Combat
Day and Time: Sat, 12:45pm
Class Length: 90 min
Experience Level: Intermediate
Intensity Level: Moderate to High
Pre-Requisites: None
Required Equipment: Armour and longsword (any type of simulator). At minimum: fencing jacket, gloves, fencing mask and longsword simulator.
Maximum Attendees: 40

Near to half of the techniques described in this body of fight books are throws (most copied are the treatises of Hundsfeld/Liegnitzer/Lew). This class will focus on 2 throws which are most common across German Fight Books. The participants will be introduced in the mechanics of the throws, with attention to the implication of wearing armour. They will then see a panel of application of those throws across the source material. This class is intended for armoured fighting practitioner, however those who are unfamiliar - or who do not have armour - are welcome.

Lectures

Fencing Instruction and Practice in the Entourage of the Dauphin and Beyond; the Influence of the Bolognese Fencer, Girolamo Cavalcabo

Instructor(s): Rob Runacres
Class Category: Lectures
Day and Time: Sun, 1:15pm
Class Length: 90 min
Experience Level: None
Intensity Level: None
Pre-Requisites: None
Required Equipment: None
Maximum Attendees: 40

A discussion of Rob's upcoming doctoral thesis, the questions raised and some of the problems facing HEMA historians.

Fencing sword: Insight into dynamic and material properties of 3 swords (1st quarter of 16th c.) kept in Zürich

Instructor(s): Daniel Jaquet
Class Category: Lectures
Day and Time: Thu, 1:00pm
Class Length: 90 min
Experience Level: None
Intensity Level: None
Pre-Requisites: None
Required Equipment: None
Maximum Attendees: 40

Presentation of a forthcoming paper in the journal Gladius where I present a three year study about this understudied type of sword. We know that such swords are training tools and simulators for competitive purposes, however there next to no study about them. We performed bending test (physical and mathematical simulation), based on top-level analyses involving tomography, surface hardness test, and spectrometry. Exciting findings about the actual function of the schilt.

German Petals on the Flower of Battle

Instructor(s): Michael Chidester
Class Category: Lectures
Day and Time: Sat, 2:45pm
Class Length: 90 min
Experience Level: Beginner
Intensity Level: Non
Pre-Requisites: None
Required Equipment: None
Maximum Attendees: 40

The teachings of 14th century condottiere and fencing master Fiore de'i Liberi are preserved in four manuscripts written in the early 1400s and, in modified form, in a fifth from the 1480s. However, the story does not end there, and there are also four German manuscripts spanning three centuries with a coherent set of teachings that extensively overlap Fiore's own. It is uncertain whether they are based on Fiore's writings or developed independently from the same tradition, and three of the four are entirely anonymous. This lecture will cover the life of the sole master associated with this group, Ludwig (IV) von Eyb zum Hartenstein, present each of the known manuscripts, and discuss what they have to contribute to our study of the system and method of the Friulian master.

Getting Started in Historical Armoured Combat (Panel)

Instructor(s): Bill Grandy, Bob Charrette, Christian Tobler, Daniel Jaquet, Gregory Mele, Scott Farrell, Sean Hayes
Class Category: Lectures
Day and Time: Thu, 10:30am
Class Length: 90 min
Experience Level: Any
Intensity Level: None
Pre-Requisites: None
Required Equipment: None
Maximum Attendees: 40

Thinking about trying armoured combat? Just getting started and need some guidance? Come get answers. General schmoozing for armoured fighters, those who want to become armored fighters, and any other interested parties.

Hands-On Antique Weapons Lecture (Lunch Lecture)

Instructor(s): Bill Grandy, Craig Johnson
Class Category: Lectures
Day and Time: null, 5:00pm
Class Length: 90 min
Experience Level: None
Intensity Level: None
Pre-Requisites: None
Required Equipment: None
Maximum Attendees: 40

Join Craig Johnson and Bill Grandy as they present and discuss period antique weapons of various eras from the Oakeshott Collection as well as personally owned pieces. Participants will learn about different aspects of these weapons based on culture, history and usage. Best of all, you'll get to pick them up and feel what they're actually like!

Hans Medel and the Evolution of a Tradition

Instructor(s): Michael Chidester
Class Category: Lectures
Day and Time: Thu, 3:00pm
Class Length: 90 min
Experience Level: Any
Intensity Level: None
Pre-Requisites: None
Required Equipment: None
Maximum Attendees: 40

The tradition of Johannes Liechtenauer is preserved in a poem called the Zettel, which was elucidated in the 15th century by five extensive glosses (or commentaries) on the verses of that poem, written by masters believed to be his students. Then in 1539, a century or more after the career of Liechtenauer, a master named Hans Medel authored (or possibly merely inspired) a sixth and final gloss of the high master's writings. Medel demonstrates a solid familiarity with the glosses that came before him, even quoting them in places, as well as the teachings of another student of Liechtenauer from whom no treatise survives, Hans Seydenfaden von Erfurt. But rather than offering a mere synthesis of these closely-related 15th century teachings, Medel's gloss diverges significantly over and over again, including offering occasional criticisms of the older teachings. This lecture will offer an overview of the Liechtenauer gloss tradition, an examination of Medel's influences, and a comparison between his gloss and the others highlighting significant points of overlap and divergence. Whether Medel is viewed as an evolution of a mainstream Liechtenauer tradition or a representative of a different tradition from the one students of HEMA are familiar with, examining his teachings offers insight into the diversity that existed in the fencing community of the 16th century.

Persian Fire and Steel

Instructor(s): Manouchehr Moshtagh Khorasani
Class Category: Lectures
Day and Time: Sat, 12:45pm
Class Length: 90 min
Experience Level: None
Intensity Level: None
Pre-Requisites: None
Required Equipment: None
Maximum Attendees: 40

The following lecture discusses the development of historical firearms in Iran. The lecture is based on a through study of historical Persian manuscripts on firearms making and production, classification and usage and as well as an analysis of 100 items from Persian firearms kept in the Military Museum of Tehran and 12 items from Military Historical Museum of Artillery, Engineers and Signal Corps. These artifacts include matchlock muskets, flintlock muskets, percussion cap lock muskets, pistols, cannons, mortars and howitzers. The lecture also introduces three Persian manuscripts on casting bronze cannons, rockets, artillery and artificial fireworks.

The Chivalric Duel in Early Renaissance Italy

Instructor(s): Gregory Mele
Class Category: Lectures
Day and Time: Sat, 4:45pm
Class Length: 90 min
Experience Level: None
Intensity Level: None
Pre-Requisites: None
Required Equipment: None
Maximum Attendees: 40

The Renaissance "duel of honor" is well-known, but beginning with Giovanni de Legnano in the late 14th century, Italian jurists had already made the case for "honor" to be an intangible property that could be stolen or damaged. As property, honor was thus something over which a legal, judicial duel could be fought.

This lecture looks at the process of challenge and response for the duel in the late 14th and 15th centuries in the Italian cities and along the way brings into question and context areas of interest to students of Italian swordplay, such as why Fiore dei Liberi is so coy about his five duels with rival masters and why the Bolognese tradition refers to its attacker and defender as "agente" and "paziente".

The Persian Chivalric Code (javānmardi)

Instructor(s): Manouchehr Moshtagh Khorasani
Class Category: Lectures
Day and Time: Fri, 10:15am
Class Length: 90 min
Experience Level: None
Intensity Level: None
Pre-Requisites: None
Required Equipment: None
Maximum Attendees: 40

The following lecture explains the history of chivalry and principles of javānmardi. Like many other countries, the training of warriors in Iran was highly codified and followed strict rules. These rules mostly were transmitted orally from one generation to the other and expressed in epic tales. This is exactly how the wandering gosans of the Parthian era told their epic stories. Many researchers and practitioners of varzesh pahlavāni (the traditional wrestling and martial art of Iran) trace their art back to the Parthian era. Later during the Sassanid era, asbarān followed the code of chivalry (mounted warriors). Even, the militias known as ayyārān in early Muslim society were descendants of the Sassanid elite troops, the asbarān. Asbarān were a division of land-holding soldiers who served the king in return for land they received from the central treasury. These independent, small landlords and warriors were called āzādān who composed the lesser nobility. They functioned as tax collectors and lords in villages. As a result of the extensive reforms introduced by Anushirvan, the social standards of the āzādan were formed into a set of ethical and moral standards known as āzādegi or javānmardi; these were rules of conduct and behavior that were expected from asbarān. Thus, asbarān were bound to these rules. Even today we observe that Iranian wrestlers are bound to these rulers and carry the tradition of their ancestors. These principles include: a) Javānmardi (manliness), b) Rasti (honesty), c) Sattāri (secrecy), d) Moravvat (magnanimity; generosity), e) Emānatdāri (safekeeping), f) Vafā be ahd (keeping promises) and g) Haqqe namak (the right of the host to gratitude).

Today's WMA and the Tradition of Chivalry

Instructor(s): Scott Farrell
Class Category: Lectures
Day and Time: Fri, 9:00am
Class Length: 90 min
Experience Level: Any
Intensity Level: None
Pre-Requisites: None
Required Equipment: None
Maximum Attendees: 40

The concept of chivalry was a foundational element in the martial culture of medieval knighthood, and an understanding of the application of this ideal was arguably as important to the training of a man-at-arms as the understanding of the fighting techniques of the longsword, pollaxe, and other knightly weapons. In this lecture and open-discussion, we will explore the history of the concept of chivalry, discuss the sometimes-conflicting principles and values that make up the code, and explore how and why these ideals and principles are still incorporated in the study of WMA today.

Traditions of Stick Fencing In Italy: From 1300 To Now

Instructor(s): Marco Quarta
Class Category: Lectures
Day and Time: Thu, 5:00pm
Class Length: 90 min
Experience Level: Any
Intensity Level: None
Pre-Requisites: None
Required Equipment: None
Maximum Attendees: 40

Medieval Weapon Arts

An Introduction to Single Hand Sword Usage

Instructor(s): Bill Grandy
Class Category: Medieval Weapon Arts
Day and Time: Thu, 3:00pm
Class Length: 90 min
Experience Level: Beginner
Intensity Level: Moderate
Pre-Requisites: None
Required Equipment: Fencing mask or equivalent, single handed "cutting" sword simulator (messer, arming sword, etc, but not a rapier or smallsword), gloves. Recommended: fencing jacket or better, forearm guard.
Maximum Attendees: 40

The one handed sword was by far the most common sword throughout history. This course will teach students what drills and techniques are necessary to become adept at any cutting-styled single hander. Students will learn proper footwork, distance and timing drills, and primary attacks and parries. These skills will be martially agnostic, and are meant as building blocks for all systems of medieval/Renaissance single hand sword usage from messer to dussack to side sword.

Armizare 101

Instructor(s): Benjamin Conan
Class Category: Medieval Weapon Arts
Day and Time: Thu, 10:30am
Class Length: 90 min
Experience Level: Beginner
Intensity Level: Moderate
Pre-Requisites: This class is an introduction to the Flower of Battle, addressed either to beginners or to historical fencers from a different backgound interested in learning what makes Fiore so appealing.
Required Equipment: Dagger simulator (wood, steel or a newspaper rolled and duct-taped), Longsword simulator (wood, plastic or steel), fencing mask and gloves.
Maximum Attendees: 40

Fiore dei Liberi hardly needs to be introduced any more. The Friulian fencer authored the oldest known Italian treatise on the duelling arts, and around 600 years after his death, he is celebrated throughout the small but cheerful world of HEMA as one, if not the most prominent figure of the late medieval martial arts. Each of the four manuscript versions of his works that have been passed on to us is a treasure of knowledge for the art historian as well as for the student of the sword. They are beautiful riddles in prose and verse, rather skillfully illustrated, and the subject of many articles, books, lectures and workshops.

This class is meant as a down-to-earth introduction to Fiore's unarmored combat. We will work our way through key principles of the dagger and the sword, using postures and plays from the treatises to lay the groundwork of a general understanding of Armizare. If you are a seasoned fencer, familiar with everything the Flower of Battle has to offer and eager to learn revolutionary approaches, this class might not be for you. As a first-timer to WMAW, my intention is to offer a fresh perspective on a classic, and in the words of the WMAW Chairman, to give a chance for folks to see how someone else than the usual crowd introduces Fiore's sword and dagger.

Armizare Free-Expression: Working Across the System

Instructor(s): Gregory Mele
Class Category: Medieval Weapon Arts
Day and Time: Sun, 9:30am
Class Length: 3 hrs
Experience Level: Intermediate
Intensity Level: Moderate
Pre-Requisites: None, but the more familiarity with armizare the better.
Required Equipment: Participants will need a longsword simulator, dagger, mask, and protective gloves as minimum equipment. Spears or poleaxes or preferable, some will be available.
Maximum Attendees: 40

Medieval martial arts are far more than "longsword", the weapon that has the most romantic appeal but which was in many ways the least useful of the knightly arsenal. No master makes this integrated approach clearer than Fiore dei Liberi, whose works are written to constantly forward and back reference different subsystems of the larger art, to show an underlying system of movement and tactics that runs throughout armizare. In this workshop we will first begin with a simple wrestling play and counter, which is itself the most commonly recurring "technique" throughout the Flower of Battle, and then will show how to apply that lesson to any play without the system: adapting longsword plays to spear and wrestling, dagger plays to longsword.

Controlling the Center and Keeping It with the Longsword

Instructor(s): Devon Boorman
Class Category: Medieval Weapon Arts
Day and Time: Sun, 3:15pm
Class Length: 90 min
Experience Level: Intermediate
Intensity Level: Moderate
Pre-Requisites: None, but the more familiarity with longsword fencing the better.
Required Equipment: Participants will need a longsword simulator, mask, and protective gloves as minimum equipment.
Maximum Attendees: 40

As in chess, control of the centre is vital to strategic dominance. In this workshop we'll explore how to seek, gain, and maintain control of the centre of the fight through blade geometry, body mechanics, and good tactical decision making. Making cuts and thrusts that can dominate weakly placed blades, using body structure and blade angle to withstand even the most powerful of blows, and winning the chess game of move and counter-move to be the owner of the centre will all be explored.

Drills for Armored Combat (No Armor Needed!)

Instructor(s): Bill Grandy
Class Category: Medieval Weapon Arts
Day and Time: Thu, 1:00pm
Class Length: 90 min
Experience Level: Basic
Intensity Level: Moderate
Pre-Requisites: None
Required Equipment: Armor is encouraged, but students without armor may use a fencing mask and gloves.
Maximum Attendees: 40

This workshop will teach students solo drills and partner drills to develop stronger proficiency with armored combat. Whether you are a veteran combatant or a raw beginner, the drills used in this class will be structured for students to take home for continued practice. The class will use the longsword as the primary teaching tool, but students will also explore how to adapt these drills to polearms as well.

Exploring the Fechtregeln, or "Kolner" Manuscript

Instructor(s): Jake Norwood
Class Category: Medieval Weapon Arts
Day and Time: Thu, 5:00pm
Class Length: 90 min
Experience Level: Intermediate
Intensity Level: Moderate
Pre-Requisites: None
Required Equipment: Participants will need a longsword simulator, mask, and protective gloves as minimum equipment.
Maximum Attendees: 40

The "fencing rules" of the so-called Kolner fechtbuch present one of the most complete representations of a possible German longsword (and messer) fencing system outside of the Liechtenauer Tradition. This course introduces not only select plays from the Fechtregeln, but presents them as a holistic system for unarmored longsword fencing.

I.33: A Tactical Approach

Instructor(s): Sean Hayes
Class Category: Medieval Weapon Arts
Day and Time: Fri, 9:00am
Class Length: 3 hrs
Experience Level: Any
Intensity Level: Moderate
Pre-Requisites: None
Required Equipment: Arming sword, buckler, jacket, mask and gloves.
Maximum Attendees: 40

Manuscript I.33 presents an extended tactical lesson in sword & buckler. Each of the lessons in each of the wards provides a series of fluid, sophisticated tactical approaches to the strategic goal of controlling the bind of the swords, and illuminating the risks and rewards of these tactics. We will develop key drills from each of the lessons provided us, and examine how we can put these together into a cohesive strategic approach to winning the exchange. This three hour class will be divided into three segments of increasing physical and mental intensity: drills will develop into multi-choice scenarios that allow us to practice fluidity and immediate tactical response. Be prepared for mental engagement with the material: I.33 teaches us to think our way through the fight, not slam our way through (and it teaches us to deal with slammers!). Class will be capped with freeplay, in which smoothness and control will be the paramount skill employed.

Keys, Locks and How to Keep 'em Close

Instructor(s): Benjamin Conan
Class Category: Medieval Weapon Arts
Day and Time: Sat, 4:45pm
Class Length: 90 min
Experience Level: Intermediate
Intensity Level: Moderate
Pre-Requisites: None
Required Equipment: Dagger simulator (wood, steel or a newspaper rolled and duct-taped), Longsword simulator (wood, plastic or steel). Fencing mask and gloves.
Maximum Attendees: 40

As a combat system, the Flower of battle is most famous for the emphasis it puts on wrestling and close contact play. With or without armour, with dagger, sword or poleaxe or even on horseback, there is no section of the manuscripts where Fiore doesn't expose proudly his contempt for the zugador's personal space. It is impossible to understand armizare and to perform it well without a regular and informed practice of the narrow play. Disarms, breaks and binds are, for most students of the art, one of the trickiest part of fencing, since it requires both the ability to read tempo and distance to get close and a solid practical knowledge of body structure and joint manipulation.

During this class, we will explore some of the ligadure that Fiore favours. We'll focus on what makes a lock possible to get, and how to force your opponent to put himself in this most delicate of situations with your bare hands, dagger, sword or polearms.

Liechtenauer's Approach to the Fight

Instructor(s): Jake Norwood
Class Category: Medieval Weapon Arts
Day and Time: Sat, 9:00am
Class Length: 3 hrs
Experience Level: Intermediate
Intensity Level: Moderate
Pre-Requisites: None
Required Equipment: Participants will need a longsword simulator, mask, and protective gloves as minimum equipment.
Maximum Attendees: 40

What does it mean to fight in Liechtenauer's style? Is it as simple as incorporating the "five strikes" into your natural repertoire, or did the old Grandmaster have something more proscriptive in mind? This class examines Liechtenauer's counsel on how to approach the fight, exploring the "do's and don'ts" in an attempt to not just answer "what would Liechtenauer do," but also why? This class is appropriate for longsword or messer fencers with some experience in Liechtenauer's or Lekuchner's systems. Mask, gloves, and longsword or messer required for the class; more sparring gear is recommended for students who want to get the most out of the class. As there is a significant lecture component to this class, note-taking materials may also be appropriate.

Messerfechten: Skills and Drills

Instructor(s): Bill Grandy
Class Category: Medieval Weapon Arts
Day and Time: Sat, 12:45pm
Class Length: 90 min
Experience Level: Intermediate
Intensity Level: Moderate
Pre-Requisites: Students should have an intermediate skill level of some kind of cutting weapon (example: longsword), or take the previous class An Introduction to Single Hand Sword Usage.
Required Equipment: Fencing mask or equivalent, single handed "cutting" sword simulator (messer, arming sword, etc, but not a rapier or smallsword), gloves. Recommended: fencing jacket or better, forearm guard.
Maximum Attendees: 40

The German langes messer (long knife) was a popular weapon amongst commoners and nobility alike. It was directly related to longsword usage, and in many cases training with the messer can help a longsword fencer understand key concepts even better. This class will have students practice specific techniques from the 15th century master Hans Lecküchner, and will teach them drills to develop better skill building and continued improvement after leaving this class.

Persian Neyze

Instructor(s): Manouchehr Moshtagh Khorasani
Class Category: Medieval Weapon Arts
Day and Time: Thu, 5:00pm
Class Length: 90 min
Experience Level: Any
Intensity Level: Low to Moderate
Pre-Requisites: None
Required Equipment: Mask, gloves, spear or staff (6 - 7.5 feet long).
Maximum Attendees: 40

Spears have always played a very important role in Iranian military history, and the lance was highly regarded as a weapon among the Iranians. Spear bearers had a long reach on the battlefield, and spears could be used effectively in war. In all cultures, spears and lances played a very important role as the main weapons on the battlefield. This was also the case through Iranian military history. The long reach and cheap production costs of such weapons were important factors for consideration when establishing formations of spear fighters and lance fighters. Persian neyze is both a thrusting and a cutting weapon. The following class deals with the following topics:

1) Persian neyze as a thrusting weapon: Main targets for the thrust with the spearhead (eyes, throat, belly, chest, legs, etc).
2) Persian neyze as a cutting weapon: Main cuts (hands, arms, head, neck, legs, etc).
3) Using the spear butt (bon-e neyze) as a mace
4) Using the shaft for leverage and wrestling techniques.

Poleaxe Fighting of the Liechtenauer Tradition

Instructor(s): Christian Tobler
Class Category: Medieval Weapon Arts
Day and Time: Sun, 1:15pm
Class Length: 90 min
Experience Level: Intermediate
Intensity Level: Moderate
Pre-Requisites: None
Required Equipment: Mask, gloves, a poleaxe trainer — and armour if you have it!
Maximum Attendees: 40

Drawing from multiple 15th century German sources, this class will provide a basic framework for fighting with one of the knightly weapons par excellence, the poleaxe. Guards, basic strokes, hooks, takedowns, and disarms will all be covered.

Schlachenden Ort -- The "Battering Point"

Instructor(s): Scott Farrell
Class Category: Medieval Weapon Arts
Day and Time: Sat, 4:45pm
Class Length: 90 min
Experience Level: Beginner
Intensity Level: Moderate
Pre-Requisites: None
Required Equipment: Longsword, mask, hand protection (heavy HEMA gloves or gauntlets). Armour not required.
Maximum Attendees: 40

Using the "battering point" or pommel end of the sword is one of the key elements of fighting in armor in the German tradition. In this session, we'll look at the variety of techniques used in the Lichtenauer tradition to employ the pommel end of the sword against an opponent in armor, when one or both hands are grasping the blade.

The Lord of the Crossing : Decision Making in the Flower of Battle

Instructor(s): Benjamin Conan
Class Category: Medieval Weapon Arts
Day and Time: Sat, 2:45pm
Class Length: 90 min
Experience Level: Intermediate
Intensity Level: Moderate
Pre-Requisites: None, but Armizare is a pre-requisite.
Required Equipment: Longsword simulator (wood, plastic or steel). Fencing mask and gloves mandatory. Padded jacket, gorget, cup, elbows and knee protection at your convenience.
Maximum Attendees: 40

"To those who learn my crossings, I will grant fame and renown", says the longsword, queen of weapons against whom none could prevail. As opaque as it is to the modern eye, the internal organization of Fiore's treatise, with its bearded kings, remedy masters and gartered scholars is clever and unique. The masters of the crossings, kings of the wide and narrow play who rule on the teachings of the sword have a key role in it. They articulate the tactical framework of the plays and give us hints to their application context in a free-flowing combat. In this class, we will explore the parameters that will help you transitioning swiftly from the crossings to the plays, and we will lay the groundwork to build a solid decision-making system out of the elements of Fiore's combat system.

The class will go from static cooperative drilling to quick-thinking decision making exercises in pair. A good knowledge of Fiore's plays will help you get the most of this workshop but as long as you are comfortable enough with a sword, you should be able to follow it.

Weapons of Armoured Combat

Instructor(s): Bob Charrette
Class Category: Medieval Weapon Arts
Day and Time: Fri, 1:00pm
Class Length: 90 min
Experience Level: Beginner
Intensity Level: Moderate
Pre-Requisites: None
Required Equipment: Longsword, dagger, spear or pollaxe. Armour preferable.
Maximum Attendees: 40

Using a typical progression for a passage at arms, we will proceed through an overview of the use of spear, axe, sword, and dagger vs. armored fighters. As we go we will be looking at similarities and differences between armored and unarmored play.

What It Takes To Win

Instructor(s): Scott Farrell
Class Category: Medieval Weapon Arts
Day and Time: Thu, 1:00pm
Class Length: 90 min
Experience Level: Beginner to Intermediate
Intensity Level: Moderate to High
Pre-Requisites: None
Required Equipment: Protective equipment required for sparring with moderate speed/intensty - mask, gorget, gloves and light body protection.
Maximum Attendees: 40

This free-play focused session will draw on modern, practical training techniques (adapted from the fields of military and law enforcement training) to simulate a more "combative" (and less "sporting") mindset for approaching a fight. The session is primarily focused on the longsword, but other traditions (sidesword or rapier) can be accommodated as well. (These training games and exercises are adaptable to any weapons.)

Renaissance and Early Modern Weapon Arts

"Enter the Wild Boar": Bolognese Side Sword

Instructor(s): Robert Rutherfoord
Class Category: Renaissance and Early Modern Weapon Arts
Day and Time: Thu, 1:00pm
Class Length: 90 min
Experience Level: Beginner to Intermediate
Intensity Level: Moderate
Pre-Requisites: None
Required Equipment: Sidesword/arming sword, mask, gorget and gloves.
Maximum Attendees: 40

In this class will look at two guards within the Bolognese art: Cinghiale Porta di Ferro and Guardia d'Entrare. We will discuss the necessary body mechanics to form the postures, the engagements when gaining measure, entering the fight safety and ending the fight quickly.

"Strama, Strama, Stramazzone!"

Instructor(s): Robert Rutherfoord
Class Category: Renaissance and Early Modern Weapon Arts
Day and Time: Sat, 12:45pm
Class Length: 90 min
Experience Level: Beginner to Intermediate
Intensity Level: Moderate
Pre-Requisites: None
Required Equipment: Sidesword/arming sword, mask, gorget and gloves.
Maximum Attendees: 40

In this class we will be looking at the mechanics of the wrist cut or stramazzone and applying it effectively within the context of a fight, eventually building up to double and triple stramazzone.

"The Winding Rappir"

Instructor(s): Robert Rutherfoord
Class Category: Renaissance and Early Modern Weapon Arts
Day and Time: Sun, 3:15pm
Class Length: 90 min
Experience Level: Beginner to Intermediate
Intensity Level: Moderate
Pre-Requisites: None
Required Equipment: Sidesword/arming sword, mask, gorget and gloves.
Maximum Attendees: 40

In this class we focus on winding with the German rapier, from Ox to Ox and Iron Door to Iron Door, covering all four openings safety, gaining the center with overbinds, strong to weak, long and short edges, and with strength through posture.

Bruchius and the Dutch Rapier Tradition: Another Dimension

Instructor(s): Reinier Van Noort
Class Category: Renaissance and Early Modern Weapon Arts
Day and Time: Fri, 9:00am
Class Length: 3 hrs
Experience Level: Intermediate
Intensity Level: Moderate
Pre-Requisites: None
Required Equipment: Mask, jacket, gloves, rapier.
Maximum Attendees: 40

In this class we will go through several plays from Bruchius's Scherm- ofte Wapen-konste (Leiden, 1671), and experience his system through these plays. Parallels and diversions from (modern interpretations of) earlier, better-known rapier systems will be explored. For example, the rapier fencing styles of the later half of the 17th century show an increased focus on closing the line, rather than changing it.

El Montante, from the Military to the Civilian Life

Instructor(s): Ton Puey
Class Category: Renaissance and Early Modern Weapon Arts
Day and Time: Thu, 3:00pm
Class Length: 90 min
Experience Level: Intermediate
Intensity Level: Moderate to High
Pre-Requisites: None but more familiarity with Destreza the better.
Required Equipment: Montante, spadone or longsword, mask, jacket and gloves.
Maximum Attendees: 40

During the sixteenth century this massive weapon abandoned the battlefields to settle in the city streets, on both sides of the law: a narrow street, a square, to launch an ambush or to separate those who are fighting. It was held in such prestige, that, even at the height of the rapier's popularity, the montante was the symbol of a master.

In this workshop we will compare the different rules created for similar situations of the two most important Portuguese authors, Domingo Luiz Godinho and Diogo Gómez de Figueiredo.

Esgrima Común: Traditional Iberian Sword and Dagger

Instructor(s): Tim Rivera
Class Category: Renaissance and Early Modern Weapon Arts
Day and Time: Thu, 10:30am
Class Length: 90 min
Experience Level: Beginner
Intensity Level: Moderate
Pre-Requisites: Familiarity with cutting and thrusting with a single-hand sword.
Required Equipment: A single-hand practice sword suitable for cutting and thrusting, and a training parrying dagger. Also standard protective gear: mask, gloves, and jacket.
Maximum Attendees: 40

Perhaps the most iconic companion weapon in Iberian swordplay is the dagger. The traditional method of sword and dagger was so reliable that many who adopted Carranza's new method of fencing kept to the traditional use of the sword and dagger (espada y daga). This class will explore the use of sword and dagger according to a treatise written by Domingo Luis Godinho in 1599. Students will learn the role of the dagger, how it supplements the use of the sword, and the tactics involved with carrying and using sword and dagger.

Esgrima Común: Traditional Iberian Sword and Shield

Instructor(s): Tim Rivera
Class Category: Renaissance and Early Modern Weapon Arts
Day and Time: Sat, 2:45pm
Class Length: 90 min
Experience Level: Beginner
Intensity Level: Moderate to High
Pre-Requisites: Familiarity with cutting and thrusting with a single-hand sword.
Required Equipment: A single-hand practice sword suitable for cutting and thrusting, and a strapped round shield of any material, convex or flat (a couple loaners will be available). Also standard protective gear: mask, gloves, and jacket.
Maximum Attendees: 40

The senior master of Spain in 1532, Francisco Román, referred to the sword and round shield (espada y rodela) as the best of all weapons. Although pike and shot took over the battlefield, the shield continued to be used to siege cities, assault breaches, protect officers, and accompany conquistadores in the new world. The only currently-located work covering the traditional Iberian method of sword-and-shield was written in 1599 by Domingo Luis Godinho. Students of this class will train in a series of progressive drills designed to instill the fundamentals of Godinho's use of the rodela. Emphasis will be placed on the coordination of the sword and shield, proper positioning to safely defend and counter, and tactics for the use of sword and shield.

Feints, Attacks to Miss, and other Deceptions with Sword and Buckler

Instructor(s): Devon Boorman
Class Category: Renaissance and Early Modern Weapon Arts
Day and Time: Thu, 5:00pm
Class Length: 90 min
Experience Level: Intermediate
Intensity Level: Moderate
Pre-Requisites: Foundation in sidesword and buckler. Doesn't have to be bolognese but you should be comfortable with foundational cuts, defences, and use of the buckler and sword together.
Required Equipment: Mask, gloves, buckler and sidesword or arming sword.
Maximum Attendees: 40

Feints, attacks to miss, invitations, and deceptive changes of line will be explored in this 90 minute workshop on how to mislead your opponent in sword and buckler. We'll look at the proper body mechanics for feints, how to string together multiple actions, how to keep yourself safe, and when to make and exploit deceptive action.

Hieb-fechten (Cut-fencing)

Instructor(s): Reinier Van Noort
Class Category: Renaissance and Early Modern Weapon Arts
Day and Time: Sun, 1:15pm
Class Length: 90 min
Experience Level: Intermediate
Intensity Level: Moderate
Pre-Requisites: None
Required Equipment: Mask, jacket, gloves, rapier, side-sword or saber.
Maximum Attendees: 40

In 17th century Germany, fencing on the thrust and fencing on the cut develop into two separate styles, often taught by different masters. Most of the known German fencing treatises of the late 17th century focus mainly on Stossfechten (thrust-fencing), and include only minor or no instruction on fencing on the cut. Henning's 1658 treatise "Short though thorough Instruction in Cut-fencing" is an exemption that deals exclusively with Hiebfechten (cut-fencing). Mirroring developments in Stossfechten, the fencing system described by Henning focuses on minimizing movements, using an on-guard position in which the hand is kept on the centre line. Cuts are then made from the wrist, keeping the hand on the central line, with the body (especially the head) moving to set itself behind the hilt.

Layering the Rapier Fight: A Conceptual Approach to Tactics

Instructor(s): John O'Meara
Class Category: Renaissance and Early Modern Weapon Arts
Day and Time: Sun, 9:30am
Class Length: 3 hrs
Experience Level: Intermediate
Intensity Level: Moderate
Pre-Requisites: Familiarity with basic techniques of Italian rapier: guards, lunge, finding the sword (a.k.a. stringere) and cavazioni
Required Equipment: Jacket, mask, gorget, gloves & rapier.
Maximum Attendees: 40

Drawing on the principal Italian masters of the early 17th century, this class will give students of the rapier a conceptual framework for approaching a bout, by organizing the essential techniques into tactical "layers"-- which will always provide a fall-back position if and when it all goes to heck.

Modern Rapier, Modern Destreza

Instructor(s): Ton Puey
Class Category: Renaissance and Early Modern Weapon Arts
Day and Time: Sat, 9:00am
Class Length: 3 hrs
Experience Level: Intermediate
Intensity Level: Moderate
Pre-Requisites: None but more familiarity with Destreza the better.
Required Equipment: Rapier, mask, jacket and gloves. A longer, lighter rapier is better, a cup or shell hilt is strongly preferred.
Maximum Attendees: 40

During the XVII century the rapier, simply called a sword in the Iberian peninsula, evolved to be lighter and towards greater use of the thrust, which in turn led to the birth of the cup-hilt. This evolution to the full hilt, also created a stronger defense for the entire body, which again, caused evolutions in the system's techniques. In this workshop we will study the reasons for the lower "atajos" in Rada's (1705) work, and how the differences in later Destreza arise from the changes in the sword.

Monte's Two-Handed Sword: The Levata

Instructor(s): Roberto Gotti
Class Category: Renaissance and Early Modern Weapon Arts
Day and Time: Sat, 2:45pm
Class Length: 90 min
Experience Level: Intermediate
Intensity Level: Moderate to High
Pre-Requisites: None
Required Equipment: Montante, spadone or longsword, mask and gloves.
Maximum Attendees: 40

In 1509, a large compendium of the martial works of condottiero, fencing master and scholar Pietro Monte was published in a densely type-set volume, made even denser by its Latin text filled with Italian and Spanish loan words. Not a "manual" by any stretch, the Collectanea provided short sets of instruction and ideas on a wide variety of weapons.

Like many authors of the period, Monte prioritizes the two-handed sword, and his chapter on its use reveals a short sequence, the levata, which forms the foundation of his teachings with *all* weapons. We will look at the levata in its various forms.

Rada's Sword and Dagger

Instructor(s): Ton Puey
Class Category: Renaissance and Early Modern Weapon Arts
Day and Time: Sun, 9:30am
Class Length: 3 hrs
Experience Level: Intermediate
Intensity Level: Moderate
Pre-Requisites: None but more familiarity with Destreza the better.
Required Equipment: Rapier, dagger, mask, jacket and gloves. A longer, lighter rapier is better.
Maximum Attendees: 40

In the discipline of "Verdadera Destreza" Francisco Lorenç de Rada is the master who best and most extensively describes the use of the sword and dagger in the third part of his book Nobleza de la Espada (1705). In that book he deals exhaustively with the use of the so-called "arnés doble", both to use it in the confrontation against practitioners of the same discipline, as to do it against the practitioners of what he calls "destreza italiana", as well as the so-called "vulgares", armed with "arnés doble".

In this workshop we will focus on the basic principles and techniques described in the text of Rada for the confrontation with another fencer of the school of "Verdadera Destreza".

The Single Sword of Girolamo Cavalcabo

Instructor(s): Rob Runacres
Class Category: Renaissance and Early Modern Weapon Arts
Day and Time: Thu, 3:00pm
Class Length: 90 min
Experience Level: Beginner to Intermediate
Intensity Level: Moderate
Pre-Requisites: Familiarity with basic rapier or side-sword skills.
Required Equipment: Students should bring full fencing equipment, including mask and jacket, as well as a single sword, such as a side sword or 'heavy' rapier.
Maximum Attendees: 40

Overshadowed in modern HEMA by contemporaries such as Fabris and Capoferro, Girolamo, Cavalcabo's "Bolognese" treatise of 1595 was in his time translated into French and German. His fame such that he became fencing instructor to the sons of Henri IV, Louis and Gaston, with his son, César, serving both brothers until 1642.

This workshop will consider Cavalcabo's single sword, examining the use of Bolognese methodology into this "late" period.

The Spadone: Emperor of Swords

Instructor(s): Roberto Gotti
Class Category: Renaissance and Early Modern Weapon Arts
Day and Time: Fri, 9:00am
Class Length: 3 hrs
Experience Level: Intermediate
Intensity Level: High
Pre-Requisites: None
Required Equipment: Montante, spadone or longsword, mask, jacket and gloves.
Maximum Attendees: 40

This intensive class will throw students head-first into all of Marozzo's teachings on the two-handed sword, which he presented in the form of three assalti, or solo forms.

In the first hour, we will look at parts 3, 4 and 5 from the First Assalto, both solo and with a partner. In the second hour, we will contrast this with parts 3, 4 and 6 from the second assalto, and then in the third hour we will work with 10 strette, or close plays, for, the third assalto. The more gear you bring, the more intense and "contact" driven the class will be, with students sorted by how much safety gear they have.

This is as big sword and a long class, so come ready to work and sweat!

The Sword and Dagger of Livre Des Leçons

Instructor(s): Rob Runacres
Class Category: Renaissance and Early Modern Weapon Arts
Day and Time: Fri, 1:00pm
Class Length: 3 hrs
Experience Level: Intermediate
Intensity Level: Moderate
Pre-Requisites: The workshop is suitable for beginners, though some knowledge of sword and dagger forms would be of use.
Required Equipment: Students should bring full fencing equipment, including mask and jacket, as well as a single sword, such as a rapier, and a dagger.
Maximum Attendees: 40

Dating to the early seventeenth century, Livre Des Leçons (Book of Lessons) is a compilation of fencing instructions, attributed to the soldier Pedro De Heredia, who served in the Spanish Netherlands. Many of these lessons can be interpreted as vulgar destreza and there is one section dedicated to countering the "mathematical form".

This workshop will concentrate on the sword and dagger forms described in the treatise and in particular, working against strong binds or direct, linear attacks.

Special

Accelerated Learning: How to build a training program that maximizes retention and ability to apply combat skills

Instructor(s): Devon Boorman
Class Category: Special
Day and Time: Fri, 1:00pm
Class Length: 3 hrs
Experience Level: Any
Intensity Level: Moderate
Pre-Requisites: Strong foundational knowledge in a martial art discipline (preferrably rapier, longsword, or sidesword so that we can match you with other training partners). There will be no martial techniques taught in this class, the focus is on learning about learning.
Required Equipment: Appropriate light sparring equipment for your discipline.
Maximum Attendees: 40

How do you take a skill from drill to combat application in the shortest time? How do maximize retention of new skills? When you've identified a problem what's the quickest route to correcting it in your form under pressure? In this course we'll explore a formal system, based in sport science, for answering these questions to create the fastest learning environments for yourself and others.

We'll look at:

Variable and blocked training

How you group together skills that you learn and the patterns you use for practicing them can dramatically increase or reduce your retention of new skills. We'll look at the most effective models for correctly motor patterns, skill retention, and tactical decision making.

The Perception-Action-Consequence model

Bringing skills into a combat-like environment as early as possible dramatically increases ability to apply those skills successfully. Yet the fastest learning environment is not combat itself. We'll explore tactical cueing, and the increase and decrease of contextual difficulty.

Drill-Integration-Performance cycle

A new skill or skill correction must move from a focused environment (drill) to an open environment (combat) in a way that allows for the new changes to be retained and not lost as soon as the variables open up. We'll explore bridging drills, exercises, and games that help integrate new learning into your performance system in the shortest time possible.

Armour Camp: Learning to Train and Fight in Harness and Host Armoured Deeds of Arms

Although medieval martial arts are extremely popular in modern HEMA, most students of the "Knightly Art" have had little exposure to actual knightly combat: fighting in armour, in deeds of arms, or on horseback. Cost, access to good armour and understanding how armoured combat parallels and differs from unarmoured combat are all some of the real challenges and barriers to getting into armoured combat. Nevertheless, a small circuit of armoured Deeds of Arms is slowly growing around the country, and this track aims to help that grow.

This year we present a special track of classes aimed at combining the usual skills-based armoured combat classes (see descriptions in the medieval and close quarter track), with a selection of round-tables, lectures and sparring clinics. The full track includes:

Adjudicating Armoured Combat

Instructor(s): Bob Charrette, Scott Farrell, Sean Hayes
Class Category: Special
Day and Time: Sun, 9:30am
Class Length: 90 min
Experience Level: Beginner
Intensity Level: Moderate
Pre-Requisites: None
Required Equipment: Good eyes! You can come without armour, if you are interested in learning how to marshal and judge armoured deeds!
Maximum Attendees: 40

Come and learn judging for armored combat bouts. We will begin with a guided discussion on the issues and problems of judging the action in armored combat and move on to having students referee a fight under the guidance of a more experienced judge.

Armoured Combat Clinic and Monitored Sparring

Instructor(s): Bill Grandy, Bob Charrette, Christian Tobler, Gregory Mele, Scott Farrell, Sean Hayes
Class Category: Special
Day and Time: Sun, 10:45am
Class Length: 90 min
Experience Level: Beginner
Intensity Level: Moderate
Pre-Requisites: None
Required Equipment: Please bring whatever weapons (sword, axe, spear and dagger) you wish to work with; some weapons will be available. Full protection for the hands (lacrosse glove minimum), neck and throat is required. Armour is not necessary, but the more you have, the better the experience will be!
Maximum Attendees: 40

Note: This class runs five times throughout the weekend. You can attend one or five as you like. Instructors may vary from session to session.

Having issues in getting or using your harness? Having problems understanding a play in your favorite source? Having trouble executing a technique? Bring your questions along and we値l take a stab at them. Instructors and experienced harness fighters will be available for one-on-one work and discussion. All are welcome to observe.

Armoured Combat Clinic and Monitored Sparring

Instructor(s): Bill Grandy, Bob Charrette, Christian Tobler, Gregory Mele, Scott Farrell, Sean Hayes
Class Category: Special
Day and Time: Fri, 2:30pm
Class Length: 90 min
Experience Level: Beginner
Intensity Level: Moderate
Pre-Requisites: None
Required Equipment: Please bring whatever weapons (sword, axe, spear and dagger) you wish to work with; some weapons will be available. Full protection for the hands (lacrosse glove minimum), neck and throat is required. Armour is not necessary, but the more you have, the better the experience will be!
Maximum Attendees: 40

Note: This class runs five times throughout the weekend. You can attend one or five as you like. Instructors may vary from session to session.

Having issues in getting or using your harness? Having problems understanding a play in your favorite source? Having trouble executing a technique? Bring your questions along and we値l take a stab at them. Instructors and experienced harness fighters will be available for one-on-one work and discussion. All are welcome to observe.

Armoured Combat Clinic and Monitored Sparring

Instructor(s): Bill Grandy, Bob Charrette, Christian Tobler, Gregory Mele, Scott Farrell, Sean Hayes
Class Category: Special
Day and Time: Sat, 10:15am
Class Length: 90 min
Experience Level: Beginner
Intensity Level: Moderate
Pre-Requisites: None
Required Equipment: Please bring whatever weapons (sword, axe, spear and dagger) you wish to work with; some weapons will be available. Full protection for the hands (lacrosse glove minimum), neck and throat is required. Armour is not necessary, but the more you have, the better the experience will be!
Maximum Attendees: 40

Note: This class runs five times throughout the weekend. You can attend one or five as you like. Instructors may vary from session to session.

Having issues in getting or using your harness? Having problems understanding a play in your favorite source? Having trouble executing a technique? Bring your questions along and we値l take a stab at them. Instructors and experienced harness fighters will be available for one-on-one work and discussion. All are welcome to observe.

Armoured Combat Clinic and Monitored Sparring

Instructor(s): Bill Grandy, Bob Charrette, Christian Tobler, Gregory Mele, Scott Farrell, Sean Hayes
Class Category: Special
Day and Time: Sat, 2:45pm
Class Length: 90 min
Experience Level: Beginner
Intensity Level: Moderate
Pre-Requisites: None
Required Equipment: Please bring whatever weapons (sword, axe, spear and dagger) you wish to work with; some weapons will be available. Full protection for the hands (lacrosse glove minimum), neck and throat is required. Armour is not necessary, but the more you have, the better the experience will be!
Maximum Attendees: 40

Note: This class runs five times throughout the weekend. You can attend one or five as you like. Instructors may vary from session to session.

Having issues in getting or using your harness? Having problems understanding a play in your favorite source? Having trouble executing a technique? Bring your questions along and we値l take a stab at them. Instructors and experienced harness fighters will be available for one-on-one work and discussion. All are welcome to observe.

Armoured Combat Clinic and Monitored Sparring

Instructor(s): Bill Grandy, Bob Charrette, Christian Tobler, Gregory Mele, Scott Farrell, Sean Hayes
Class Category: Special
Day and Time: Thu, 3:00pm
Class Length: 90 min
Experience Level: Beginner
Intensity Level: Moderate
Pre-Requisites: None
Required Equipment: Please bring whatever weapons (sword, axe, spear and dagger) you wish to work with; some weapons will be available. Full protection for the hands (lacrosse glove minimum), neck and throat is required. Armour is not necessary, but the more you have, the better the experience will be!
Maximum Attendees: 40

Note: This class runs five times throughout the weekend. You can attend one or five as you like. Instructors may vary from session to session.

Having issues in getting or using your harness? Having problems understanding a play in your favorite source? Having trouble executing a technique? Bring your questions along and we値l take a stab at them. Instructors and experienced harness fighters will be available for one-on-one work and discussion. All are welcome to observe.

WMAW is More Than HEMA: A Look at Historical African Martial Arts (HAMA)

With the popularity of the term "HEMA" over the last decade as a catch-all term for everything from modern tournament fighting to research-focused delving into German, Iberian, Italian and English fighting traditions, it is assumed that HEMA and WMA are simple cognate terms, or the former has replaced the latter. This simply isn't true! HEMA is a *subset* of Western Martial Arts, which certainly include the reconstructed arts of Europe, but also include traditional living arts such as Classical Fencing, Boxing, Italian stick and knife fighting, savate or Jogo do Pau, but also include those of the larger Western world, that developed through colonialism and cross-cultural influence. Arguably, since antiquity, no region has had more cultural contact and cross-polination (both positive and negative) with Europe than Africa, or played a role in shaping the creation of the colonial and post-colonial New World cultures. We are excited and pleased to introduce a number of this vast continent's martial traditions to WMAW attendees for the first time.

Barbary Saber Fencing

Instructor(s): Da'Mon Stith
Class Category: Special
Day and Time: Sat, 4:45pm
Class Length: 90 min
Experience Level: Any
Intensity Level: Moderate
Pre-Requisites: None
Required Equipment: Swords will be provided but if you have an arming sword or saber you are welcome to bring it. If you have any sparring gear please bring it.
Maximum Attendees: 40

This class will be an introduction into North African fencing principles that are based on a diverse stick and sword tradition found along the Barbary Coast, and which clashed with Mediterranean and English sailors throughout the early modern era.

Ethiopian Shotel

Instructor(s): Da'Mon Stith
Class Category: Special
Day and Time: Sun, 1:15pm
Class Length: 90 min
Experience Level: Any
Intensity Level: Moderate
Pre-Requisites: None
Required Equipment: Round shield or Buckler (Some bucklers may be available) and sparring gear (Head and arm protection).
Maximum Attendees: 40

This class will explore the historical use and unique attributes the Shotel, the Ethiopian sickle sword, a fascinating, forward-curved weapon whose antecedents in north-eastern Africa extend all the way back to the Bronze Age!